Exosomes are nano-sized (30-150 nanometers in diameter) sacs that are the smallest extracellular vesicle that contains the cell’s biomolecules (eg, DNA, RNA, proteins, carbohydrates) which play a critical role in regulating the body’s cellular and physical process by acting as a messenger and allows cells to communicate between each other. They are associated with biological responses generated by the body and defined by how they are formed from Exocytosis, which refers to an important transport mechanism for all cells that are executed through the fusion of secretory vesicles and plasma membranes. As the Exosomes are actively secreted by cells in your body, they travel across the bloodstream as a carrier to deliver the biomolecules to other cells and stimulate them and increase their numbers.
Exosomes have come of interest in recent years and are an active research topic within the medical industry due to the cell’s usage allowing for therapeutic applications against various diseases (cancer and neurodegenerative diseases) and biological diagnostic applications. Functional readouts utilizing Exosomes have generated insights on existing diseases and allow identification for indications of health and diseases that are being communicated between the cells and organs.